Huawei ❤️ Rust

As a leading telecommunications company on a global scale, Huawei is dedicated to trusted programming. To achieve this goal, our team of developers relies heavily on the support provided by Rust programming language. As a founding member of the Rust Foundation, Huawei is fully committed to the growth and prosperity of the Rust community and sponsoring Rust Conferences, including RustConf, Rust Nation UK, EuroRust, GoSim and Rust China Conference.

To demonstrate our commitment, we create development tools and deep code learning technology to help software engineering with Rust, and are continuously contributing to the improvement and expansion of Rust’s features, including those listed in the roadmaps on language, compiler and library teams.

Macros 2.0, a GOSIM talk given by Rust compiler expert Vadim Petrochenkov.

A Tale of Binary Translation, a Rust Nation UK talk given by Rust library expert Dr Amanieu d’Antras.

The Merging Process of the Rust Compiler, a FOSDEM talk given by Rust DevTools expert Guillaume Gomez.

Sponsored Rust contributions

Developers working on these efforts in the upstream Rust project are being sponsored by Huawei
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Async Drop compiler in-progress

Support asynchronous destruction of objects running out of scope:

  1. Implement code generation for asynchronous drop

  2. Implement prevention measures for running asynchronous drop synchronously

  3. Implement type system pre-requisites for (2) if necessary - type system refactoring, linear types

  4. Implement any other features in rustc compiler that will help Rust language team to make a decision about including async drop to the language

Atomic memcpy library in-progress

It’s currently not possible to implement an efficient and strictly correct sequence lock in Rust, which is a very important low level synchronization primitive.

Reading the data from a sequence lock relies on the ability to read data that might be concurrently modified, checking afterwards if a data race occured (by checking an atomic sequence counter), and only then using the data after the check. (See the RFC for a detailed explanation.)

However, in the memory model of Rust (and C++), reading data that is concurrently modified results in a data race (undefined behavior) immdiately, not just when using the data later.

Crates like seqlock work around this by using ptr::read_volatile, but the correctness is debatable.

C++’s P1478 adds atomic_load_per_byte_memcpy and atomic_store_per_byte_memcpy to provide a solution for that problem. Rust should have something similar, but something that fits better into Rust’s type and safety system.

Rust RFC 3301 is a proposal for a generic type AtomicPerByte<T> that allows for concurrent reads and writes that do not result in undefined behavior, while still allowing tearing to allow reads and writes of any size. It leverages the MaybeUninit<T> type to represent types in potentially invalid (teared) state.

Atomic memcpy RFC

C strings language and library in-progress

The &std::ffi::CStr type is used to represent (null terminated) C strings in Rust. Currently, this type has some subtle issues and is in many ways less ergonomic than the regular string type.

Some of the areas of potential improvement:

  • There is no syntax for a &CStr literal. (Update: We now have the experimental c"…" syntax.)

  • Due to a language limitation, &CStr is currently represented as a pointer+size pair. It should instead be just a pointer without a size, since the size is already determined by the null terminator.

    • Because of this, conversion from *const c_char requires scanning the whole string to find its size. That should be a free/nop conversion instead. See the note in this documentation.

    • For the same reason, &CStr cannot be passed through a C FFI boundary. Ideally, &CStr should have the same ABI as a *const c_char.

  • CStr has far fewer useful methods than str (e.g. finding, splitting, replacing, etc.) making it hard to work with directly.

  • format!() can only produce a String, not a std::ffi::CString.

  • All bytes in a CStr (before the terminator) are non-zero, but none of the methods use NonZeroU8 to leverage the type system for this invariant.

RFC for C string literals (merged) Tracking Issue RFC for UTF-8 in C and byte strings Issue to make `&CStr` a thin pointer

CPU feature detection in core library in-progress

Currently, CPU feature detection macros such as is_x86_feature_detected! are only available in std. This is because, on most platforms, feature detection requires information from the operating system, which is not available in core by design.

However, an alternative design would be to expose an API for manually enabling features: the set of enabled features would be available in core, but code in std would be responsible for querying the set of supported features from the OS on startup and marking them as enabled in core.

This will allow code in core and alloc to take advantage of CPU-specific optimizations such as using string processing instructions to accelerate certain functions.

Constant Generics compiler blocked by trait system rewrite

Const generics allows the use of values in the type system. Most often used for arrays with a generic size: [u32; N] where N can be an arbitrary usize. It improves code clarity, reusability and the general experience of working with arrays. This can reduce heap allocations and increase performance. Changes to the standard library relying on const generics also increased the compilation speed and documentation quality.

Tracking Issue for complex Generic Constants (rust-lang/rust#76560) Tracking Issue for complex Constant Parameter Types (rust-lang/rust#95174) Tracking Issue for _ as a const argument (rust-lang/rust#85077)

Cursor support for BTreeMap library in-progress

One of the fundamental properties of BTreeMap is that it maintains elements in sorted order and enables efficient element lookup in O(log(N)) time. However the current API is overly fitted towards a key-value API like a HashMap and fails to expose the ability to make queries about “nearby” keys. For example, finding the first element whose key is greater than X.

This proposal adds Cursor and CursorMut types to BTreeMap based on similar types for LinkedList.

API Change Proposal

Delegation compiler in-progress

Support syntactic sugar for conveniently delegating implementation to other types.

  1. Implement a compiler pass detecting delegation-like patterns in code

  2. Run the pass on code from, analyze found delegation patterns, analyze previous delegation proposals

  3. Implement syntactic sugar for common delegation patterns as a procedural macro or a built-in language feature

  4. Write an RFC that proposes including delegation into Rust language

Diagnostic Locations devtools in-progress

Accurate diagnostic locations for tools like linters in presence of macro expansions.

  1. Discuss specific cases that need improvements

  2. Formalize the suggested improvements and implement them

Diagnostic Translation compiler in-progress

Rust’s diagnostics working group is leading an effort to add support for internationalization of error messages in the compiler, allowing the compiler to produce output in languages other than English.

Translated error messages will allow non-native speakers of English to use Rust in their preferred language.

Tracking Issue (rust-lang/rust#100717) Announcement Blog Post

Improvements of Standard Library Mutex library complete

On most platforms, these structures are currently wrappers around their pthread equivalent, such as pthread_mutex_t. These types are not movable, however, forcing us to wrap them in a Box, resulting in an allocation and indirection for our lock types. This also gets in the way of a const constructor for these types, which makes static locks more complicated than necessary.

In terms of performance, this feature has enabled at least 2x speedup for reducing the overhead of locks, while in the extreme situations, super-linear speed up for multiple-core/multithread usage scenarios.

Tracking Issue (rust-lang/rust#93740)

Inline Assembler compiler complete

Inline Assembly enables many applications that need very low-level control over their execution, or access to specialized machine instructions.

Tracking Issue (rust-lang/rust#72016) Release Notes (1.59.0)

Keyword Generics compiler blocked by trait system rewrite

The Keyword Generics Initiative is a new initiative in Rust with the goal researching the ability to abstract over the color of functions or “effects”. See the official announcement post for more details. It is currently not possible to nicely abstract over “const-ness” and “async-ness” in stable Rust.

Announcement Blog Post

Parallel Compiler compiler in-progress

Enable parallel compilation in rustc to improve compilation efficiency.

It has already been implemented in the Nightly. See the following blog for details:

Issues (WG-compiler-parallel) Working Group Major Change Proposal

Polymorphization compiler blocked by trait system rewrite

Polymorphization is a code-size optimisation, aimed at reducing unnecessary monomorphization, thereby reducing the quantity of LLVM IR generated. By reducing the quantity of generated LLVM IR, it is expected that time spent in LLVM during compilation will decrease, resulting in improved overall compilation times.

Reduce binary size impact of formatting machinery library in-progress

The format_args!() macro and underlying std::fmt::Argument type form the basis of all printing and formatting machinery in the Rust standard library, such as println!(), format!(), and write!().

By improving the macro and the in-memory representation of the fmt::Arguments type, a significant reduction in binary size can be achieved. This is especially important for embedded software running on devices with limited storage and memory.

To be more flexible, currently working on the lifetime of hygenic macros to ensure safe expansion of unsafe code in the macros.

Tracking Issue (rust-lang/rust#99012)

Rust ABI language in-progress

Features and tools to aid in the creation and usage of dynamic libraries and research towards developing a new ABI and a new in-memory representation for interoperability across high-level programming languages that have safe data types.

Experimental Feature Gate Proposal for "crabi" RFC for dynamically linked crates (#[export])

Rust Specification language in-progress

Huawei supports the efforts of the Rust project and Rust Foundation towards a complete and accurate official Rust language specification.

The Rust language specification will have a big impact on the ability to write safety critical software in Rust, will improve the internal consistency of the language, and be an important tool to greatly improve the precision and completeness of existing and future language proposals.

RFC 3355 Tracking issue 113527

Split DWARF compiler complete

rustc already has support on stable for split debuginfo on Windows (*.pdb) and macOS (*.dSYM), but is missing support for split debuginfo on Linux (Split DWARF’s *.dwp/*.dwo files).

Large applications built with debug information have slow linking times, can experience out-of-memory failures at link time and slow debugger start-up times. Furthermore, debuginfo in these applications may result in a significant increase in storage requirements and additional network traffic in distributed build environments.

Tracking Issue (rust-lang/rust#34651) Release Notes (1.65)

Thread local Cell methods library in-progress

Nearly all thread_local! { … } variables are of Cell or RefCell type, since without interior mutability, they’d just be thread local constants.

The variable created by the thread_local! { … } macro (of type LocalKey<T>) is used by calling .with(|v| ..) on it, to restrict the lifetime to stay within the current thread. (See this example.)

The values inside a Cell and RefCell are used through methods like .set(), .get(), .borrow(), etc.

This results in a lot of verbosity to access a simple thread local (mutable) integer: LOCAL.with(|v| v.set(123)).

RFC 3184 adds methods on LocalKey<Cell<T>> and LocalKey<RefCell<T>> to shorten such cases to just: LOCAL.set(123).

Additionally, LOCAL.set(value) directly initializes the thread local with the specified value, unlike LOCAL.with(|v| v.set(value)), where with will (on the first call) initialize the thread local with the default value first and set will then immediately destroy that value by overwriting it with the new value.

RFC Tracking issue

Trait System Rewrite compiler in-progress

Start an initiative with the goal of replacing the current trait system implementation of rustc. This new implementation should fully replace both fulfill and evaluate and offer an API a lot closer to the ideal of chalk/a-mir-formality.

Currently working on opaque type support for the next generation trait solver. With that all stable type system features are supported by the new solver. Will still need a lot of small improvements afterwards: both to remove the last dependencies on the old solver and to avoid breaking stable code when enabling the new solver by default.

Types Team Tracking Issue (rust-lang/types-team#76) Implementation Tracking Issue (rust-lang/rust#107374)

Type Privacy and private-in-public lints compiler in-progress

Right now this is mostly about leaking private types from public interfaces (like functions returning private types), and lints trying to prevent it.

People have been disagreeing what “public” means in this context, and the RFC specifies new design based on reachability that will match people’s intuition better. Ivakin Kirill is implementing the reachability algorithms and lints now.

Tracking Issue (rust-lang/rust#48054) Bug fix (rust-lang/rust#112670) features and maintenance development tools in-progress is a crucial part of the Rust developer’s toolbelt and Huawei sponsor continued development of features and of maintenance of the project.

Add GUI tests

hashbrown features and maintenance library in-progress

hashbrown is the hash table implementation used in Rust’s standard library. This crate is performance-critical for both the Rust compiler and many Rust programs. Huawei sponsors the continued developement of hashbrown features and maintenance of the project.

rustc_codegen_gcc compiler in-progress

rustc_codegen_gcc adds support for GCC as backend for the Rust compiler. It’ll allow to support a lot more of compilation targets while also benefiting from GCC advantages.

rustdoc features and maintenance development tools in-progress

rustdoc is a crucial part of the Rust developer’s toolbelt and Huawei sponsor continued development of rustdoc features and of maintenance of the project. Contributions have included reduction in the size of generated documentation, intra-doc-links, -> * query support and more.

Bundle local images RFC Accept additional user-defined classes in fenced code blocks Unify behaviours for re-exports of

Rust Projects

Other Rust projects being worked on by the Trusted Programming team
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Using machine learning and code transformations to fix diagnostics/lints research in-progress

Analsysis of diagnostic warnings from non-machine-applicable Clippy lints finds 21 warnings per kLOC are found on average of projects, whilst 0.49 warnings per kLOC in the Rust compiler. By learning from manual warning fixes in rust-lang/rust Git repositories, warnings can be automatically fixed through code transformations and machine learning.


Inlay Hints to Code development tools complete

Inlay hints are auxiliary information provided to an Rust editor/IDE by the Rust Analyzer.

Converting hints such as type information, parameter names, into the code, it helps train a machine learning model with what programmers could get with the help of an IDE.

Issues (trusted-programming)

MicroMap library complete

A much faster alternative of HashMap, for very small maps. It is also faster than FxHashMap, hashbrown, ArrayMap, IndexMap, and all others. The smaller the map, the higher the performance. It was observed that when a map contains more than 20 keys, it may be better to use the standard HashMap, since the performance of micromap::Map may start to degrade. See the benchmarking results below.


CRustS development tools in-progress

Improving C2Rust by applying code transformations on translated C to remove unnecessary unsafe code and make code more idiomatic.

Roadmap Demo

Unsafe Keyword Classifier research in-progress

Training a machine learning model to efficiently classify Rust functions and blocks as unsafe or safe (using 374 mLOC from Accuracy on functions is 95%, and accuracy on blocks is 85%. Results can be obtained in less than a second while editing the item, faster than waiting for compilation.


Team members

Employees and consultants sponsored by Huawei to work on Rust:

Amanieu d'Antras

Rust Library Team
Consultant with Ada Lab, Ireland Research Centre, Huawei


Andrew Zhogin

Moscow Research Centre, Huawei


Nghi D. Q. Bui

Research Scientist, Ireland Research Centre, Huawei


Vitali Borsak

Intern, Ada Lab, Ireland Research Centre, Huawei


David Wood

Rust Compiler Team Co-Lead
Programming Languages Lab, Edinburgh Research Centre, Huawei


Guillaume Gomez

Rust Developer Tools Team
Ada Lab, Paris Research Centre, Huawei


Li Zheng

Open Source Management Centre, Shenzhen, Huawei


Qu Bowen

Open Source Management Centre, Shenzhen, Huawei



Rust Compiler Team
Consultant with Ada Lab, Ireland Research Centre, Huawei


Luca Carlig

Ada Lab, Ireland Research Centre, Huawei


Wang Luxin

Open Source Management Centre, Shenzhen, Huawei


Mara Bos

Rust Library Team Lead
Consultant with Ada Lab, Ireland Research Centre, Huawei


Ma Bin

Open Source Management Centre, Shenzhen, Huawei


Matthew Jasper

Rust Compiler Team
Programming Languages Lab, Edinburgh Research Centre, Huawei


Michael Ling

Fundamental Software Engineering Lab, Waterloo Research Center, Huawei


Midia Reshadi

Ada Lab, Ireland Research Centre, Huawei


Chen Chen

Open Source Management Centre, Shenzhen, Huawei


Vadim Petrochenkov

Rust Compiler Team
Moscow Research Centre, Huawei


Chunmiao Li

Trustworthiness Software Engineering and Open Source Lab, Huawei


Li Yuan

Rust Parallel Compiler Working Group
Open Source Management Centre, Shenzhen, Huawei


Tan Lu

Ada Lab, Ireland Research Centre, Huawei


Chen Shuo

Open Source Management Centre, Shenzhen, Huawei


Haitao Wu

Fundamental Software Engineering Lab, Waterloo Research Center, Huawei


Wang Qilin

Open Source Management Centre, Shenzhen, Huawei


Wang Jiangtong

Library Development for Embedded Systems, Hangzhou, Huawei


Yegor Bugayenko

Director of System Programming Lab, Russian Research Centre, Huawei


Yijun Yu

Director of Ada Lab, Ireland Research Centre, Huawei


Daria Sukhonina

Moscow Research Centre, Huawei


Zhou Daibing

Project Manager of MemSafePro Y4 project, Huawei TTE Lab

We are recruiting Principal Rust Programming Researchers and Software Engineers at Trustworthy and Open Source Software Engineering in Dublin, Ireland, Europe.

Sponsored Research Labs

Research labs sponsored by Huawei to work on Rust

Programming Languages Research Group

University of Bristol, UK

Research Areas: Ownership/Lifetime Analysis, Program Synthesis

Programming Languages Lab

Peking University, China

Research Areas: Functional Programming, Sugaring/Desurgaring, Algorithm Synthesis
Opportunities: Postdoc position , Oversea PhD

Software Engineering And Design

The Open University, UK

Research Areas: Empirical Studies, Bug Localization

© Trusted Programming Team, Huawei